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Understanding Leukaemia: causes, symptoms and treatments

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that can be difficult to understand. Learn about the causes, symptoms and treatment options in this informative guide.


Leukaemia is a type of blood cancer that can affect people of all ages. It can be difficult to understand and treat, but there are effective treatment options. In this informative guide, you can find out about the causes, symptoms and treatment options for leukaemia.


Leukaemia is a type of blood cancer that affects the blood cells in the bone marrow. It occurs when abnormal blood cells multiply uncontrollably, preventing the production of healthy blood cells. Types of leukaemia include acute lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic myeloid leukaemia. Symptoms may include tiredness, easy bleeding and bruising, frequent infections and bone pain. Treatments for leukaemia include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and bone marrow transplants.


There are four main types:

  • Acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL),
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)
  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

Lymphatic leukaemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It is a type of leukaemia or cancer of the white blood cells. Lymphocytic leukaemia starts in the lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) and causes them to multiply out of control. Lymphocytes normally protect against infection by destroying germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.) that enter the body through cuts, scratches and other injuries.

The most common symptom of lymphocytic leukaemia is anaemia (inability to produce enough red blood cells). Other symptoms include tiredness, fever, enlarged lymph nodes and night sweats.

Myeloid leukaemia is a type of blood cancer that affects mature white blood cells called myeloid cells. These cells are an important part of the immune system, but in myeloid leukaemia they grow out of control and eventually crowd out healthy blood cells. Symptoms vary depending on the type and stage of the disease. Common symptoms include weakness, tiredness, easy bruising, infections that don’t go away or come back quickly, frequent infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis that require antibiotics, unexplained weight loss, bone pain or tenderness in the back, ribs, shoulders or pelvis, unexplained fractures, nosebleeds (although this can also be a sign of leukaemia), shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, easy bruising or bleeding from cuts.

ALL and AML are acute forms of the disease, which means they develop quickly and require immediate treatment. CLL and CML are chronic forms of the disease, which means they develop more slowly and may not require immediate treatment. It is important to see a doctor to determine the type of disease and the best treatment plan.

Comprendre la leucémie : causes, symptômes et options de traitement


The exact causes of leukaemia are not yet known, but there are certain risk factors that can increase the chances of developing the disease. Risk factors include exposure to toxic chemicals, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, a family history of leukaemia and certain genetic conditions. It is important to discuss these risk factors with your doctor to see if you are at risk of developing the disease.


The symptoms of leukaemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include tiredness, fever, chills, night sweats, bone pain, joint pain, headache, bleeding and easy bruising. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see your doctor for early diagnosis and treatment.


Treatment options for leukaemia depend on the type and severity of the disease and the patient’s overall health. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplantation and targeted therapies. The choice of treatment will also depend on the patient’s age and personal preferences. It is important to talk to your doctor about the treatment options available and their potential advantages and disadvantages.

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