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37, Boulevard Habib Bourguiba 2036, La Soukra, Tunisie



We have created a page to answer your questions. Please consult our FAQ section, which will help you better understand The Mediterranean clinic. If you still have questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at +216 70 246 001.


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Congestive gastropathy is an inflammatory disease of the stomach. It is caused by the accumulation of excess gastric juices in the stomach wall and is characterised by severe pain in the epigastric region and vomiting.

The cause of congestive gastropathy is not known, but it may be related to obstruction of the pylorus (the lower opening of the stomach) or to impaired circulation in the blood vessels supplying the stomach. Congestive gastropathy may be a complication of acute peptic ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis or pernicious anaemia. In many cases no specific cause can be found, but obstruction of the pylorus by a tumour or stenosis (narrowing) due to scarring from a previous inflammation can lead to this pathology.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

Symptoms include severe epigastric pain radiating to the back and abdomen, and vomiting during meals. The pain may be relieved somewhat by lying down or bending forward. There is no fever and no abdominal tenderness, unless there has been recent bleeding in the stomach from an ulcer or bleeding from another source, such as a stomach ulcer or gastric disease.

Gastrologists are doctors who specialise in the treatment of the stomach, small intestine and colon. Gastrologists are also known as gastroenterologists.

Gastrologists can be generalists or specialists. Generalists treat all types of diseases affecting the digestive system, while specialists may focus on a particular area, such as pancreatic or liver disease.

Gastrologists work closely with other specialists, including surgeons and endocrinologists (doctors who treat hormonal disorders). Gastrologists often work as part of multidisciplinary teams that include nurses, dieticians and other healthcare providers.

A gastroenterologist may treat patients with stomach pain or ulcers that do not respond to over-the-counter medicines such as antacids. He or she may also treat patients with more serious conditions, such as cancer of the pancreas or oesophagus (the tube that connects the mouth and throat to the stomach).

Gastroenterology and hepatology are medical specialties that focus on diseases of the digestive system and the liver.

Gastroenterologists specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as peptic ulcers, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulosis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, etc.

Gastroenterologists treat diseases of the pancreas, such as acute or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic tumours, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, etc.

Gastroenterologists and hepatologists are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive cancers such as stomach cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, oesophageal cancer, etc.


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Cardiology is a speciality of internal medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Many cardiologists are trained in surgery and interventional procedures, but not all are.

A cardiologist can help treat a wide range of conditions, including:

  • Arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat)
  • Heart failure
  • Congenital heart disease (CHD)
  • heart valve disease, such as mitral valve prolapse (MVP) or aortic stenosis
  • pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)
  • Heart rhythm problems (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter).

Cardiology is a medical specialty that studies the heart, blood vessels and blood circulation.

The cardiologist assesses and treats all diseases of the heart, coronary arteries and veins. They also assess and treat all diseases of the lungs, including pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs) and other lung diseases.

The cardiologist diagnoses heart abnormalities by performing physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms (ECHOs), stress tests, Holter cardiac monitors, event monitors and nuclear tests. The cardiologist will use these tests to determine whether there are any abnormalities in the rhythm or structure of your heart.

If you are diagnosed with one or more of these conditions, you may be referred to a cardiologist for treatment:

Heart rhythm problems: Your heart may beat too fast or too slow. It may also beat irregularly. Arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation (AFib), atrial flutter and ventricular tachycardia (VTach).

Heart valve problems: Your heart has four valves that open and close as your heart pumps blood around your body. If these valves don’t work properly or if they become damaged over time due to disease or ageing.

Cardiology is a medical specialty that focuses on the study, diagnosis and treatment of heart disease.

Coronary heart disease is a disease of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. It includes angina pectoris and heart attack.

Congenital heart defects are abnormalities that are present at birth and affect the structure or function of the heart. They can be mild or severe and often require specialised medical care.

Symptoms of a heart attack can include severe chest pain, tightness, difficulty breathing, nausea and sweating. If you suspect you’re having a heart attack, it’s important to see a doctor as soon as possible.

Cerebrovascular diseases are conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, such as strokes. They can cause symptoms such as slurred speech, muscle weakness or loss of sensation.

Arrhythmias are abnormalities in the regularity or speed of the heartbeat. They can cause palpitations, dizziness, excessive tiredness or fainting. A cardiologist can diagnose and treat these conditions.


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Endocrinology is the study of hormones and their effects on the body. Hormones are chemical messengers that circulate in the bloodstream and affect cells in different parts of the body. Endocrinologists are doctors who specialise in this area.

A patient may see an endocrinologist for many reasons. The most common are:

  • Hormonal imbalance or disorder: A condition in which there is an excess or deficiency of a particular hormone in the body.
  • Diabetes mellitus: A condition characterised by excessively high blood sugar levels due to a problem with insulin production, insulin resistance or both.
  • Thyroid problems: An underactive thyroid can cause low energy and weight gain; an overactive thyroid can cause weight loss and rapid heartbeat.

Endocrinology is the medical specialty that deals with diseases of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is a group of glands that produce and release hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones regulate many of the body’s functions, including metabolism, growth, tissue function and development.

There are a number of diseases of the endocrine system that are caused by the dysfunction of one or more of its components. Examples include diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease (hypothyroidism), adrenal disease (Addison’s disease) and pituitary disease (prolactinoma). The most common endocrine disorder is insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome, which leads to high blood sugar levels and obesity.

What should you do if you think you have an endocrine problem? If you think you have an endocrine problem, the first thing to do is talk to your GP. He or she may refer you to an endocrinologist for further tests or treatment.

Endocrinology is a medical specialty that focuses on the study of hormones and their effects on body function.

The most common hormone disorders treated in endocrinology include thyroid disorders, disorders of glucose metabolism, growth disorders and fertility disorders.

The main types of thyroid disease are hypothyroidism (underproduction of thyroid hormones), hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones) and thyroid nodules (abnormal growths in the thyroid gland).

Treatment for obesity can vary from person to person. It can include lifestyle changes (a balanced diet, regular exercise), medication and, in some cases, bariatric surgery.

Endocrine conditions are usually treated by endocrinologists, who are doctors who specialise in endocrinology. However, other specialists such as diabetologists and surgeons may also be involved in the treatment of certain endocrine conditions.


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A diabetologist is a doctor who specialises in treating diabetes.

Diabetologists are also called endocrinologists, but they are different from endocrinologists, who may be general practitioners or specialists in other medical fields such as paediatrics or internal medicine.

Diabetologists are trained to treat all types of diabetes, including type 1 and type 2, which are often treated with different medications and techniques.

Diabetologists also work with patients to manage the complications that can arise from these conditions, such as kidney disease and eye disease.

Diabetology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with diabetes.

Diabetes Type 1 is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. The body tries to use insulin, but cannot process the hormone properly. As a result, glucose (sugar) builds up in the blood instead of being used by cells.

Diabetes Type 2 occurs when the body has trouble using insulin or doesn’t make enough of it. Sugar then builds up in the blood.

Both types of diabetes are serious conditions that can lead to life-threatening complications if not managed properly.

Several factors can determine the severity of diabetes:

Your blood glucose levels: High blood glucose levels can lead to complications such as heart disease, kidney disease and eye problems. Some people with diabetes type 2 may have low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia), which can cause symptoms such as dizziness and confusion.

Complications of diabetes: Complications of diabetes include nerve damage (neuropathy), eye damage (retinopathy) and foot damage (foot ulcers). If you have any of these conditions, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes or medication to help manage them.

Treatments for diabetes include medication, insulin therapy, a balanced diet, regular physical activity and regular blood glucose monitoring.

Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes, characterised by lesions and ulcers on the feet. It’s important to take care of your feet by checking your blood glucose levels regularly, wearing appropriate footwear and avoiding injury.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. It can often be controlled with a balanced diet and regular exercise. In some cases, medication may be needed to keep blood glucose levels under control during pregnancy.


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A neurologist is a doctor who specialises in treating problems related to the nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

A neurologist can diagnose and treat conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. These conditions include:

  • Headaches
  • Headaches (migraines)
  • Epileptic seizures
  • Nerve pain (neuropathy)
  • Movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis
  • Brain tumours

The Mediterranean clinic in Tunisia is a medical centre specialising in the treatment of neuropathies, vascular diseases, movement disorders and strokes.

Our clinic is equipped with the most advanced medical equipment specifically designed for the treatment of neurological disorders.

The Mediterranean clinic offers patients a personalised treatment plan tailored to their needs. This is achieved through a comprehensive examination and diagnostic tests.

Our clinic offers advanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for patients suffering from neurological disorders. These procedures include:

Diagnosis of neurological disorders using imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Treatment of neurological disorders using physiotherapy and rehabilitation techniques such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy.

Neurology is the branch of medicine that studies diseases of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord.

Central nervous system disorders are conditions that can affect the brain and spinal cord, such as brain tumours, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and so on.

Cognitive disorders are changes in higher mental functions such as memory, attention, language and perception caused by neurological conditions such as dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.

A stroke is a sudden stoppage of blood flow to the brain, resulting in brain damage. This can cause problems with movement, speech, sensation or thinking.

Neurodegenerative diseases are conditions in which the nerve cells in the brain gradually deteriorate. They include conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc.

The treatment of neurological disorders depends on the specific pathology. It may include medication, rehabilitation, surgery or other therapies specific to the condition. It is important to see a neurologist for an accurate diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan.


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A pneumologist is a doctor who specialises in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases. Pneumologists treat asthma and other chronic lung diseases such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and lung cancer. They may also be involved in the treatment of heart failure or other cardiovascular diseases that affect the lungs.

Pulmonologists may be certified in pulmonary medicine, critical care medicine, sleep medicine or internal medicine with a subspecialty in pulmonary medicine.

Respiratory diseases are diseases that affect the lungs. The lungs are responsible for taking oxygen from the air we breathe and delivering it to the bloodstream, where it is carried to all other parts of the body.

Respiratory diseases include asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Some respiratory diseases can be treated with antibiotics, while others may require surgery or other treatments.

Respirology is a branch of medicine that deals with lung diseases, including lung cancer. Respirologists are doctors who specialise in this field.

Pneumology is a branch of medicine that focuses on diseases of the lungs and airways.

COPD is a chronic lung disease that causes obstruction of the airways, usually due to prolonged exposure to toxic substances such as cigarette smoke.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath.

Respiratory allergies are allergic reactions that affect the respiratory tract, such as the nose, sinuses, bronchi and lungs, in response to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or moulds.

Respiratory infections are infections that affect the respiratory tract, such as influenza, pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis.

A bronchopulmonary tumour is a malignant tumour that develops in the lungs or airways.

Respiratory failure is a condition in which the lungs are unable to supply enough oxygen to the body’s tissues or remove enough carbon dioxide.

Sleep apnoea is a disorder in which breathing stops and starts repeatedly during sleep, often due to airway obstruction.

To make an appointment with a pulmonologist, you can contact your GP, who will be able to refer you to a pulmonologist. You can also contact a medical centre specialising in respiratory diseases directly to make an appointment on +216 70 246 000.


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The Mediterranean clinic is the leading oncology centre in Tunisia. It offers a full range of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. The clinic is located in Tunis, the capital of Tunisia.

Oncologists are doctors who specialise in treating cancer patients. They are trained to perform surgery, administer chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and provide supportive care to patients.

Oncologists are often referred to as oncologists or haematologists, but these two specialties are slightly different. Haematology deals mainly with blood-related disorders such as anaemia, leukaemia and lymphoma, while oncology deals mainly with solid tumours such as breast or bowel cancer. Most oncologists also have subspecialty training in one of these areas.

Oncologists work in hospitals or in private practice. Most work directly with patients as part of a team that includes surgeons, radiologists and other specialists needed to treat complex cancers. Other oncologists choose to focus on research rather than patient care, although they often continue to see patients as part of their professional responsibilities.

Oncology is the branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of cancer. It includes the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer.

Carcinology is the branch of science that studies cancer. The term can also refer to the study of other diseases caused by abnormal cell division, such as benign tumours.

The difference between oncology and carcinology:

The difference between oncology and carcinology can be better understood by looking at their etymology. The word ‘oncology’ comes from the Greek word onkos, meaning mass or tumour, while the word ‘carcinology’ comes from the Greek word karkinos, meaning crab or crayfish. So an oncologist treats tumours, while a carcinologist studies them. An oncologist treats patients with malignant neoplasms, while a carcinologist studies these malignant neoplasms to learn more about them and find new treatments.

Oncology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of cancer.

An oncology diagnosis is the process by which a specialist doctor identifies and evaluates the presence of cancer in a patient.

Oncological surgery is a surgical procedure to treat or remove a cancerous tumour.

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses powerful drugs to destroy or slow the growth of cancer cells.

Radiotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses ionising radiation to destroy or stop the growth of cancer cells.

Common side effects of oncology treatments include tiredness, hair loss, nausea, vomiting and skin changes. It’s important to discuss these side effects with your healthcare team to get the adequate support.


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A nephrologist is a doctor who specialises in the treatment of kidney disease. Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine and paediatrics that deals with disorders, diseases and affections of the kidneys and their function.

Nephrology can be defined as the branch of medicine that deals with disorders and diseases of the kidneys. Nephrologists are trained to treat conditions such as kidney stones, high blood pressure, chronic kidney failure, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and others. They deal  with patients suffering from acute or chronic kidney failure, whatever the cause: diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B or C virus, hypertension, etc.

If you have kidney disease, you may need dialysis. Dialysis is a treatment that uses special machines to filter waste products from the blood when your kidneys can’t do it themselves.

Dialysis can be an important treatment for people with kidney failure. It helps prevent fluid build-up in the body, which can cause swelling, pain and other problems. Dialysis can also help control blood pressure and prevent kidney damage.

Dialysis is not a cure for kidney disease. It is a treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which means that your kidneys no longer work well enough to filter your blood normally. If you are considering dialysis, talk to your doctor about the impact it may have on your quality of life.

Nephrology is the branch of medicine that specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease. Dialysis is a treatment used to replace kidney function in patients whose kidneys are no longer working properly.

Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the kidneys. It is characterised by progressive damage to the kidneys, which can eventually lead to kidney failure.

Obesity can increase the risk of developing kidney disease such as high blood pressure, diabetes, nephropathy and kidney failure.

Vascular nephropathies are kidney diseases caused by problems with the blood vessels that supply the kidneys. This can lead to reduced kidney function.

Renal lithiasis, also known as kidney stones, is the formation of crystals in the urinary tract. These crystals can cause severe pain and kidney problems.

Dialysis is needed when the kidneys stop working properly and are unable to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. This can be due to acute or chronic kidney failure.

There are two main types of dialysis: haemodialysis, which uses a machine to filter the blood, and peritoneal dialysis, which uses the abdominal wall to filter the blood. Your nephrologist will recommend the type of dialysis that is best for you.

Dialysis can be temporary or permanent, depending on the cause and severity of kidney failure. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be considered as an alternative to permanent dialysis. Your nephrologist will guide you in choosing the most appropriate treatment.


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Haematologists, also known as specialists in haematology, are doctors who specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the blood. Haematologists can be paediatricians, family doctors or internists who have completed an additional three years of training after medical school. They may also be board-certified physicians who have completed a specialty programme in haematology after medical school.

Haematologists treat a variety of blood-related conditions, including anaemia and bleeding problems. They may also diagnose and treat cancerous or non-cancerous tumours that develop in the blood or bone marrow. Other responsibilities include:

  • Diagnosing abnormal blood tests
  • Treating infections that affect the immune system
  • Treating thrombosis (blood clots)
  • Monitoring patients’ response to chemotherapy

Haemolytic disease of the newborn is a condition that occurs when a baby’s immune system attacks its own red blood cells. This causes anaemia and jaundice, which can affect the infant’s growth and development.

The disease can be acquired or inherited. Acquired haemolytic disease of the newborn is caused by an infection of the mother during pregnancy (usually group B streptococcus). It is associated with premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery. Hereditary haemolytic disease is caused by abnormal genes that run in families (genetics).

Symptoms include:

  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
  • Anaemia (low red blood cell count)
  • Unusual fatigue (tiredness)

Thrombocytosis can be caused by infections, inflammatory diseases, bone marrow disorders, certain medications, or a compensatory response to blood loss.

Leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma are the main types of cancer that can affect the blood and bone marrow.

Symptoms of bleeding disorders can include bruising, frequent or prolonged bleeding, nosebleeds, heavy menstrual bleeding or excessive bleeding from an injury.

Anaemia can be caused by iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, chronic diseases, autoimmune diseases or bone marrow disorders.

The different types of anaemia include iron deficiency anaemia, pernicious anaemia, aplastic anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease.

Platelets are responsible for blood clotting and play an important role in preventing excessive bleeding.


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Paediatrics is the medical care of babies, children and adolescents. Paediatricians are doctors who specialise in treating children. In the United States, there are three types of paediatricians: general paediatricians, paediatric subspecialists, and neonatologists (doctors who specialise in newborn babies).

Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with all aspects of a child’s growth, development and behaviour from birth to adolescence. It includes care for normal growth and development, as well as physical diseases and conditions that may affect a child’s health. It also includes the diagnosis and treatment of congenital anomalies, genetic disorders, infectious diseases and other problems specific to children.

Paediatricians consult with other specialists as necessary to ensure that each child receives the appropriate care.

If your child has chronic diarrhoea, vomiting or abdominal pain for more than two weeks, call your doctor.

Your doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history, including any previous illnesses or hospitalisations. He or she may also do a physical examination, especially of your child’s abdomen. In some cases, the doctor may recommend diagnostic tests such as blood tests and x-rays. These tests can help rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

If necessary, the doctor may refer your child to a paediatric gastroenterologist – a doctor who specialises in treating stomach and bowel disorders in children. A paediatric gastroenterologist can assess your child’s symptoms, diagnose any underlying conditions and determine the best treatment for his or her condition.

Neonatology is a medical specialty that focuses on the care and treatment of premature or sick newborn babies.

Common paediatric infectious diseases include influenza, chickenpox, measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever and upper respiratory tract infections.

Common metabolic disorders in children include diabetes type 1, thyroid disorders, lipid disorders and acid-base disorders.

Adolescent medicine is a branch of paediatrics that focuses on health care specific to adolescents, including mental health problems, contraception, eating disorders and risky behaviours.

Adolescent medicine is a branch of paediatrics that focuses on health care specific to adolescents, including mental health problems, contraception, eating disorders and risky behaviours.

Bronchiolitis is a viral infection of the lower airways in babies, often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). It causes inflammation of the small airways, making it hard to breathe.

You should visit the paediatric emergency department if your child has severe symptoms such as difficulty breathing, persistent high fever, severe pain, frequent vomiting or loss of consciousness.

Signs of infection in a newborn include fever, lethargy, poor feeding, pale or yellowish skin, vomiting, difficulty breathing and irritability.

To prevent infectious diseases in your child, it’s important to follow good hygiene practices such as frequent hand washing, regular vaccinations, avoiding contact with sick people and promoting a healthy lifestyle.


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A gynaecologist, also known as an obstetrician or gynaecologist, is a doctor who specialises in women’s health. Gynaecologists are experts in female reproduction, pregnancy and childbirth. They may also perform surgery on women’s reproductive organs.

A gynaecologist is trained to treat a wide range of female medical problems, including menstrual disorders, ovarian disorders and infertility.

Gynaecologists can work as obstetricians or general practitioners. Obstetricians specialise in childbirth, while general practitioners treat both men and women. Some gynaecologists may specialise in areas such as family planning or infertility treatment, while others may focus solely on women’s health issues such as menopause management or hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Gynaecology is a medical specialty that focuses on women’s health, particularly the female reproductive organs.

If you’re pregnant, you may want to know how far along you are. A gynaecologist can calculate the exact date of conception by taking your last period and adding 40 weeks. This method is called the Naegele rule, named after Franz Karl Naegele, a German obstetrician who developed it around 1805. The calculation is only accurate if you have regular 28-day menstrual cycles.

A gynaecologist will also use Premenstrual Tension (PMT) to determine whether there is a risk of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. If the ultrasound shows a thickening of the uterine wall, this may indicate an ectopic pregnancy, which is when the fertilised egg implants outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. It is important for both patients and doctors to know exactly what stage of pregnancy they are at, so that treatment can be planned accordingly.

Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain and fertility problems.

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They are usually benign, but can sometimes require medical treatment.

Prolapse is a condition in which pelvic organs, such as the uterus, bladder or rectum, drop or collapse from their normal position.

A fibroid is a benign tumour that develops in the uterus. It can cause heavy bleeding and pelvic pain.

Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumour that develops in the ovaries. It can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating and abnormal vaginal discharge.

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that develops in the lining of the womb. Symptoms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.


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Obstetricians are doctors who specialise in caring for women before, during and after pregnancy. Obstetricians are trained to provide comprehensive medical and surgical care to women throughout pregnancy, labour and delivery.

Obstetricians are trained to diagnose and treat obstetric complications such as preterm labour, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, post-partum haemorrhage and urinary tract infections. They also provide preventive care, such as well-baby visits.

Obstetricians may work in hospitals or in private practice with a group of other doctors.

Obstetrics is the branch of medicine that deals with pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal care.

An ultrasound is a scan that uses sound waves to create an image of your baby in the womb.

An obstetric ultrasound is used to:

  • Check that your baby is growing normally and has no problems.
  • Check that there are no problems with your pregnancy (such as bleeding, growths or abnormal fluid).
  • Check that your cervix is closed and not dilated prematurely.
  • Confirm your baby’s delivery date.
  • Check if you are carrying twins or more.

Amniocentesis is a medical test in which a sample of amniotic fluid is taken to assess the health of the foetus.

Infertility treatments may include medication to stimulate ovulation, surgery to correct structural problems, or medically assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilisation.

There are several ways of giving birth, including vaginal birth, caesarean section, and vaginal birth after a previous caesarean section.

Risk factors for birth complications include advanced maternal age, pre-existing health problems, multiple pregnancies and previous birth complications.